Cowpea Farming – A Step by Step Guide. Paayap is an leguminous herbaceous annual with twining stems. Usage Frequency: 1 [24], While the date of cultivation began may be uncertain, it is still considered one of the oldest domesticated crops. Genetically modified cowpeas are being developed to express the cry protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, which is toxic to lepidopteran species including the maruca. 34 Figure 6: Mean plant height for medium maturing cowpea germplasm 45 Figure 7: Frequency distributions for number of pods per plant for medium maturing germplasm. The seeds are usually cooked and made into stews and curries, or ground into flour or paste. Jav. [73] In some tradition cropping methods, the yield can be as low as 100 kilograms per hectare (0.045 short ton/acre). Introduction and Importance of Cowpea: Cowpea crop is a Kharif legume crop and is grown across India for seeds, green pods, animal fodder, and organic green manure. [13] From there they traveled north to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans. unguiculata (L.) Walp.Cowpea is often called "black-eyed pea" due to its black- or brown-ringed hylum. [42][43] The weevil generally enters the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the dry seed. Unguiculata is Latin for "with a small claw", which reflects the small stalks on the flower petals. [50] CPMV is stable and easy to propagate to a high yield, making it useful in vector development and protein expression systems. [21], Compared to most other important crops, little is known about the domestication, dispersal, and cultivation history of the cowpea. [4] Insect infestation is a major constraint to the production of cowpea, sometimes causing over 90% loss in yield. Cowpea is a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the family Fabaceae and sub-family, Fabiodeae. Land Preparation. [60][61] They can also be processed into a paste or flour. The leaves of The plant produces clusters of flowers at the end of a peduncle (flower stalk) and 2–3 seed pods per peduncle. A high level of morphological diversity is found within the species with large variations in the size, shape, and structure of the plant. [5] The legume pod borer Maruca vitrata is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea and the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus the main postharvest pest. [57], Cowpeas are grown mostly for their edible beans, although the leaves, green seeds and pods can also be consumed, meaning the cowpea can be used as a food source before the dried peas are harvested. We're part of Translated, so if you ever need professional translation services, then go checkout our main site, Usage Frequency: 12, Usage Frequency: 16, Usage Frequency: 2, Usage Frequency: 1. Close, Alisa Huffaker, and Eric A. Schmelz: This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 10:01. is one of the most popular grain legumes in Africa as well as in some regions of America and Asia.The main subspecies is Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. [74], This appears to be one of the latest taxonomical classifications, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "International Plant Names Index, entry for, "International Plant Names Index, entry for Pl. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is a food and animal feed crop grown in the semi-arid tropics covering Africa, Asia, Europe, United States and Central and South America. 4 The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) is an autonomous, international scientific organization under the aegis of the Consultative Group on A 1997 estimate suggests that cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) of land, have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes and are consumed by 200 million people on a daily basis. Central leaflet is hastate, symmetrical, smooth, with the lateral surfaces irregular. (Hasskarl)", "Southern Peas - Gardening Solutions - University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences", "Niebe: A Food of Choice to Combat Hunger", "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (, "The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa", "Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus". [39] Other important pests include pod sucking bugs, thrips, and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. subsp. [34], Storage of the seeds can be problematic in Africa due to potential infestation by postharvest pests. In addition to their use as a protein-rich food crop, cowpeas are extensively grown The edible seed of these plants. 2. [49] The plant is susceptible to mosaic viruses, which cause a green mosaic pattern to appear in the leaves. [68] A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. role (IITA, 1990). Usually yellow when ripe, but may also be brown or purple in colour. Reference: Wikipedia, Last Update: 2011-05-19 The crop is mainly grown for its seeds, which are high in protein, although the leaves and immature seed pods can also be consumed. 47 Figure 8: Mean pod length for medium maturing cowpea germplasm. Usage Frequency: 16 [19][20] The taproot can penetrate to a depth of 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) after eight weeks. Human translations with examples: cpmv, niebè, tonchio cinese, tonchio chinese, fagiolo asparago, cowpea mosaic virus. [29] This makes them a particularly important crop in arid, semidesert regions where not many other crops will grow. Rar. (Vigna unguiculata) Cowpea is a food and animal feed crop grown in the semi-arid tropics covering Africa, Asia, Europe, the United States, and Central and South America. Cowpea (severe) mosaic 86 Cowpea (yellow) mosaic 88 Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic 90 Cowpea golden mosaic 92 Parz.itic Higher Plants Witchweed 94 Non-Parasitic Disorders Calcium, magnesium and sulphur 96 deficiencies Molybdenum and iron deficiencies 98. ii The whole plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its name. [54] Drought at the preflowering stage in cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha. It has been created collecting TMs from the European Union and United Nations, and aligning the best domain-specific multilingual websites. The best holes are 2 inches deep and are placed 6 inches apart and 24 inches between rows. The seeds are born in 3 to 6-inch (8–15 cm) long, slender, round, two-valved pods growing from the leaf axils. Cowpea originated in Africa and is widely grown in Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and in the southern United States. Cowpea is an annual herb and is commonly cultivated mainly for its protein-rich seeds. Vigna unguiculata is a member of the Vigna (peas and beans) genus. Hypernym: cowpea. [62] Although little research has been conducted on the nutritional value of the leaves and immature pods, what is available suggests that the leaves have a similar nutritional value to black nightshade and sweet potato leaves, while the green pods have less antinutritional factors than the dried seeds. al., 2002) and in an effective cowpea-rhizobium symbiosis, more than155 kg N/ha is fixed which can supply 8090% - of plants total N requirement. Plant Description All cultivated cowpea varieties are considered warm season and adapted to heat and drought con-ditions. ), an annual legume, is also commonly referred to as southern pea, blackeye pea, crowder pea, lubia, niebe, coupe or frijole. Seed rate 35 - 40 kg/ha Time of planting Plant cowpea when there is sufficient soil moisture for germination. [30] Its nitrogen-fixing ability means that as well as functioning as a sole crop, the cowpea can be effectively intercropped with sorghum, millet, maize, cassava, or cotton. [40] Biological control has had limited success, so most preventive methods rely on the use of agrichemicals. MyMemory is the world's largest Translation Memory. [55] Crop wild relatives are the prominent source of genetic material, which can be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops. Usage Frequency: 2 It is a valuable crop as it is a highly palatable food source and the whole plant can be used as forage for animals. Reference: Wikipedia. Cowpeas can be erect, semierect (trailing), or climbing. [28] The first written references to the cowpea were in 300 BC and they probably reached Central and North America during the slave trade through the 17th to early 19th centuries. 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