Tragic occurrences seem unconnected and unrelated and at times nonsensical. Pericles himself seems without personality, largely because Shakespeare does not delve into the workings of his psyche as he did with characters in the tragic plays he wrote immediately before. Then times passes; Pericles is king of Tyre, Thaisa becomes a priestess for Diana, and Marina grows up. Funerals after great battles were held as a public event where any citizen of Athens, stranger or relative to the fallen heroes, was invited to take place. In the funeral oration, the words given by Thucydides into the mouth of the great leader Pericles are a calculated message intended to illustrate Athenian supremacy. When your text says "Lacedaemon" or "Lacedaemonian," that means, respectively, "Sparta" or "Spartan." The trajectory from suffering to triumph is Christian in content. Pericles delivered the oration not only to bury the dead but to praise democracy. Antiochus has kept suitors from marrying her by requiring that they answer a riddle correctly or die. The speech was delivered by Pericles, an eminent Athenian politician, at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) as a part of the annual public funeral for the war dead. In Ephesus, Thaisa is a priestess at the temple where Pericles tells his story. The funeral oration can be seen as the answer to a simple and perpetually recurring question, namely “Why do we fight?” In the Homeric age the answer might have been for glory and booty, and in the more poetic notion of the hero. It covers Chapters 35 through 46 in Book Two, about 3,000 words and should take 15-20 minutes to read. Pericles passes off his young daughter Marina to be raised by others. Most believe that Pericles was praising Athenian democracy, yet some claim that he was, in fact, downplaying the importance of democracy. Pericles' Funeral Oration by Philipp Foltz (1852) When the bodies had been buried, it was customary for some wise and prudent notable and chief person of the city, preeminent in honor and dignity, before all the people to make a prayer in praise of the dead, and after doing this, each one returned to his House. Years later, Pericles finds his daughter and reunites with the wife he had thought was dead. Soon she gets work in a reputable house, educating girls. Many historians believe that Thucydides likely edited the speech to some extent. Structurally, the play divides in two; in the first 9 scenes, Pericles falls into unfortunate circumstances and his luck changes, and for the final 13 scenes, he repeats this pattern. Pericles, Prince of Tyre leaves home to escape death only to win a jousting contest and marry a princess. Rather, his sufferings seem like a catalogue of secular misfortunes. He discovers that Thaisa is not dead, and revives her. Startled, Pericles asks her to continue, and to his surprise finds that everything Marina says matches the story of his own lost Marina. Pericles' Funeral Oration from the Peloponnesian War (Book 2.34-46) This famous speech was given by the Athenian leader Pericles after the first battles of the Peloponnesian war. Marina is brought to the ship, and she tells Pericles that her own sufferings must match his. Pericles’ Funeral Oration by plato on November 10, 2018 It is the close of the first year of the Peloponnesian war. But Dionyza is jealous of Marina, who takes all the attention away from her own daughter who is of similar age. For example, Pericles's reasons for leaving Tyre seem vague, and his decision to leave Marina at Tarsus is unexplained. Some fishermen tell him about king Simonides's daughter, a lovely girl who will be married to whoever wins a jousting contest the following day. When she realizes Pericles is her lost husband, she faints, and Cerimon explains that she is Thaisa. Following a classical model, the play emphasizes long periods of sufferings, perilous sea journeys, families split by distance and apparent death, followed by spiritual rebirths and eventual reunions. He further says that democracy guarantees privacy and equal justice for all. Gower also explains the role of the minor characters, who were living embodiments of their various virtues, such as loyalty (Helicanus) and charity (Cerimon). Other citizens want to crown Helicanus as king, but Helicanus insists they wait to see if Pericles returns. Pericles begins by acknowledging that most speakers praise the decision, made by a past generation, to add an oration, or speech, to Athens's funeral customs. She manages to convince the men who come to the brothel that her honor is sacred, and they leave seeking virtue in their own lives. Helicanus explains that Pericles has not spoken in three months, and Lysimachus says he knows someone in his city who may be able to make him talk. The journey to self-knowledge from a place of unawareness is a repeating narrative for Shakespeare's characters, but no one in this play experiences that change. Only through Gower's conclusion are we given a sense of any kind of redemption plot. Pericles, Prince of Tyre Summary. He explains to us, finally, that Antiochus and his daughter and Cleon and Dionyza are punished because they did evil, whereas Pericles and his family are rewarded. According to Thucydides, Pericles' funeral oration said that democracy makes it so people can better themselves through merit rather than class or money. He asks her about her birth, and she says her name is Marina. Our study guide has summaries, insightful analyses, and everything else you need to understand Pericles. But Pericles is sure Antiochus will want him dead for knowing the truth, so he flees back to Tyre. Funeral orations are generally formal in nature and their themes sometimes extend beyond the deaths of the people who are being mourned. Funeral Oration Pericles was a famous Greek general. Why doesn't Pericles notice that Thaisa is still alive? In Tyre, Pericles worries that Antiochus will take some form of revenge, whether a military attack or an underhanded assassination attempt. Ben Jonson, one of Shakespeare's contemporaries, attributed the success to its use of "scraps out of every dish." 404 BCE) in his History of the Peloponnesian War. Startled, Pericles asks her to continue, and to his surprise finds that everything Marina s… Thaisa's body is put in a chest, which washes up in Ephesus, where it is brought to the attention of Cerimon, a generous doctor. Why doesn't Dionyza just send Marina back to Tyre instead of killing her? Pericles Funeral Oration In the fifth century BCE the city of Athens was lead by a man named Pericles. Pericles leaves his kingdom, fleeing one king who he thinks will kill him because of a contest for the hand of the princess, only to enter an identical contest. They are reunited, but Pericles is exhausted, and in his sleep the goddess Diana tells him to go to her temple in Ephesus and tell of his experiences. Pericles's travails have the form of a Christian retribution story, but without the background of faith, without any reason for his sufferings. In spite of his often jingoistic faith in Athens, Pericles is indeed right in assuming that “the admiration of the present and succeeding ages will be [Athens’s]”. He loses his wife whom he barely knew, and then makes sure he won't know his daughter by leaving her in a different kingdom. One explanation for this may be the oft-mentioned claims that the authors shift after scene 9. Funeral Oration by Pericles In the Aftermath of the Peloponnesian war between Athens and Sparta, Pericles, Athens’ general and statesmen, delivered a powerfully comforting eulogy to the polis of Athens, assuring the people that their city state is in good hands, and easing the pain of all the families and relatives of the deceased. No point is made about virtue except that one should have it. The author of the paper "Pericles’ Funeral Oration from Thucydides by Paul Halsall" will begin with the statement that Pericles’ Funeral Oration is the aforementioned Athenian leader’s speech during the internment of the Athenians who died for their nation during the Peloponnesian War… Pericles' funeral oration was a speech written by Thucydides and delivered by Pericles for his history of the Peloponnesian War. Scenes of working people barely link up with the rest of the plot. Pericles who was the leader of Athens, encouraged the people to move towards the port, which was where they received their supply and had their strength. Pericles’ funeral oration summary Indeed, a worthy summation of Pericles’s oration is that it is a count of the “points in which [Athens] is worthy of admiration”. After the dead had been buried in a public grave, one of the leading citizens, chosen by the city, would offer a suitable speech, and on this occasion Pericles was chosen. At such a time of high emotions and patriotism – Pericles has not one theme but several. Pericles and his crew arrive in Myteline, and Lysimachus goes out to meet the ships. Pericles is something of a messy play--the plot is repetitive and silly at times, the characters lack depth, the presentation of a "chorus" figure is old-fashioned and undramatic. Pericles and his family have endured the vagaries of fortune, and through it all remained virtuous, so in the end they were rewarded with the joy of being reunited. Pericles’ Funeral Oration stands as the grand exemplar of epideictic oratory, specifically the form of epideictic known to the Greeks as epitaphios logos, and to us as a eulogy. For a play inhabited by incest, a lost daughter and a wife presumed dead, several tempests, several contests for the hand of a princess, and seemingly innumerable kingdoms ruled by men of greater or lesser tyranny, Johnson's assessment seems perfectly apt. The shipmaster insists the body be thrown overboard, or the storm won't stop, and Pericles complies. But soon a letter from Helicanus calls Pericles back to Tyre, so he sets off. In 431 BCE, the statesmen Pericles delivered one of his most famous speeches of all time. The Athenians would go on to lose the war with Sparta. Pericles is distraught, and sets to the seas again. Athens, no stranger to war, finds itself mourning those who had fallen on the field of battle, the sons and fathers lost. Antiochus sends an assassin after him. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Pericles and what it means. Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Overall, the play suggests that the collection of miseries suffered by Pericles's family ultimately leads to reward. A major difference between funerals in Athens and funerals held in present day is the fact that in Athens the cost of the funeral … On board a boat with his wife and Lychordia, a nurse, they come upon a great storm, during which Thaisa dies in childbirth. If Pericles seems like a Job figure, doomed by a higher power to suffer in order to prove a point about faith and virtue, he certainly doesn't know it himself. In the brothel in Mytilene, Marina's main goal is to prove that she is above those who run the brothel, and she wants only to improve her lot. Filled with melancholy, he takes the advice of Helicanus, his councilor, to travel for a while until Antiochus is no longer after him. Tragicomedy is modeled on the felix culpa, the "fortunate fall" of Adam and Eve that led to the coming of Christ. When Pericles uncovers King Antiochus’ incest with his daughter, Pericles flees to Tyre with an assassin on his trail. However, it started as an ancient Greek art form. Gower returns to offer a conclusion, noting that we have seen evil punished (Antiochus and his daughter have died, and when the people of Tarsus discovered Cleon's evil, they revolted and killed him and his wife in a palace fire), but that we have met a variety of good people along the way, such as loyal Helicanus and charitable Cerimon. Though his is the rustiest armor, Pericles wins the tournament, and dines with Simonides and his daughter Thaisa, both of whom are very impressed with him. A summary of Part X (Section13) in William Shakespeare's Pericles. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Delivered in 430 B.C.E., near the end of Pericles’ life and following the first year of the Peloponnesian War the speech was mandated by the laws of the democracy. It was the custom at the time to honor the dead each year who had died defending their city-state, the city-state of Athens. Assignment: Analysis of Pericles' Funeral Oration Pericles led Athens at the height of its classical glory, and from the funeral oration he gave, as recorded by Thucydides, we get a sense of how the Athenians thought of themselves, as well as the role that public speaking played in their culture. The fishermen who help Pericles are forgotten, despite his promise to remember them; their criticism of a world where the big fish eats up the little fish makes Pericles chuckle, but he ignores it when he goes off to win the princess of Pentapolis. Lower class characters become merely caricatures. Pericles explains foggily that he feels he must continue on and endure, but not out of any sense that divine providence is at work. Dionyza plots to have Leonine murder Marina, but at the last moment, pirates seize her, and take her to Myteline on Lesbos to sell her as a prostitute. At the end everyone is reunited, but Pericles divides the family again by sending Marina to Tyre and going to Pentapolis with Thaisa. Pericles determines to enter the contest. Helicanus explains that Pericles has not spoken in three months, and Lysimachus says he knows someone in his city who may be able to make him talk. Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis: Athenian Democracy This piece is a funeral oratory, a speech written to honor fallen Athenian heroes at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War. Pericles’s famous funeral oration is, without a doubt, one of the greatest speeches passed down in history, yet there is dispute as to the true meaning of democracy put forth. In Pentapolis, Pericles hears of recent events and determines to go back to Tyre. Pericles arrives with corn and saves them. However, the answer may be more complex. Pericles and his cohorts live in a pagan world, where even the goddess Diana becomes a character. However, he himself feels that the heroic deeds of the dead were adequately honored by the funeral the crowd has just witnessed and that the Athenian state has paid for. This was after the first Peloponnesian war battle was over (Terney, 2012). Unlike a great many of Shakespeare's works, there is little connection made in this play between the royal classes and working classes. Pericles's funeral oration was recorded by the Athenian historian Thucydides (c. 460–c. Meanwhile in Tyre, Helicanus reveals that Antiochus and his daughter have been burnt to death by fire from heaven, so Pericles can return. In his introduction to Pericles' Funeral Oration, the historian Thucydides explains the time-honored practice of providing public funerals to Athenian soldiers killed in battle: "The dead are laid in the public sepulchre, maintained for those who fall in war, in the most beautiful suburb of the city..." This "suburb" is the Keramikos, just north of the Agora, and the site of state … One of the most famous of these speeches is Pericles' Funeral Oration.In this speech, Pericles mourned the deaths of soldiers in the beginning battles of the Peloponnesian War. Pericles’ profound rhetorical skills were displayed within his Funeral Oration honoring Athenian soldiers who demonstrated extraordinary valor. Meanwhile, Pericles goes on a trip to Tarsus to reunite with his daughter, but Cleon and Dionyza tell him that she has died, and show him the monument they have ordered built in order to erase their complicity in the matter. And to pull it all together, we have the figure of Gower, most of whose monologues merely repeat the plot of scenes just past, or narrate events that take place offstage. Pericles doesn't reveal the truth, and Antiochus gives him forty days before his death sentence. The speech concluded a ritualized ceremony to honor the city’s soldiers who had fallen in the first year of the Peloponnesian War. Yet in Shakespeare's time the play was very popular and has been successfully performed in modern productions. The frequency of such occurrences makes a consistent pattern. Pericles and his crew arrive in Myteline, and Lysimachus goes out to meet the ships. Study guide and teaching aid for the Funeral Oration of Pericles featuring document text, summary, and expert commentary. Yet the complex plot is unwoven at the end to reveal a version of Christian providence, masquerading as the workings of the Greco-Roman gods. Pericles’ funeral oration If you haven’t read Pericles’ funeral oration, I highly recommend you do so. Funeral Oration by Pericles In the Aftermath of the Peloponnesian war between Athens and Sparta, Pericles, Athens’ general and statesmen, delivered a powerfully comforting eulogy to the polis of Athens, assuring the people that their city state is in good hands, and easing the pain of all the families and relatives of the deceased. He is successful, but discovers that its answer reveals the incestuous relationship between father and daughter. Once he can return home, his family sails with him, but a storm separates them, so Pericles returns alone. A funeral oration is a lengthy speech given at a funeral. The whole family is reunited, and overjoyed. He asks her about her birth, and she says her name is Marina. The style is uneven, and suspected by many to not be the work of a single author. The Funeral Oration was recorded by Thucydides in book two of his History of the Peloponnesian War Although Thucydides records the speech in the first person as if it were a word for word record of what Pericles said, there can be little doubt that Thucydides has edited the speech at the very least. In 431 BCE, at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War, held their traditional public funeral for all those who had been killed. Meanwhile, Marina is plucked from her royal station and hurled into prostitution, where she merely resists her surroundings but gains no wider knowledge of other people and lives--she just insists on her virtue. No higher power makes itself known until Diana reminds him to go to her temples. On the way home Pericles is shipwrecked in a storm in Pentapolis. Sparta continued trying to invade Attica, and thus continued to find the places deserted, before they returned home. All the suffering he endures inspires little reflection on the nature of injustice. Analysis of Thucydides: Funeral Oration (Greece) al Affiliation Thucydides is a famous speech written by an Athenian leader, Pericles, in the year 399 BC (Terney, 2012). Gower, an offscene narrator, enters to tell about the kingdom of Antioch, where king Antiochus and Antiochus's daughter are engaging in incest. Marina is brought to the ship, and she tells Pericles that her own sufferings must match his. Shipwrecked in Pentapolis on his travels away from Tyre--continuing to flee Antiochus’ wrath--Pericles marries Thaisa, who appears to die in childbirth. Pericles first goes to Tarsus, where king Cleon and his wife Dionyza bemoan the famine that has beset their nation. Thaisa confines herself to Diana's temple, remaining essentially in the same moment as when she first was separated from Pericles. Pericles, Prince of Tyre, tries his hand at the riddle. Sold to a brothel run by Pander and Bawd, Marina refuses to give up her honor, despite the many men who come wanting to buy her virginity. Faith has no obvious role. He gave a speech in Athens, a public speech, honoring the many warriors who were killed in battle after the first year of the Peloponnesian War. All of them have contributed to the affairs of the civilization either in one way or the other. Funerals after such battles were public rituals and Pericles used the occasion to make a classic statement of the value of democracy. Funeral Oration of Pericles: Document Analysis OVERVIEW The Funeral Oration delivered by Pericles of Athens is considered one of the most famous speeches of antiquity. In this structure of suffering leading to happiness the play fits the genre of tragicomic romance. While some occurrences in the play are doubled almost exactly, others repetitions are subtly and crucially different. Pericles lands in Tarsus and hands over his child, Marina, to Cleon and Dionyza, since he thinks it won't survive the journey to Tyre. Without the significance of faith Pericles's sufferings may seem arbitrary. For example, the riddle contest in Antioch is echoed by the jousting competition in Pentapolis, with the second being a good, moral version of the first. Pericles' Funeral Oration Rhetorical Analysis Greece has seen many great orators, leaders and reformers. Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. When he wakes, he promises Marina to Lysimachus, and they set off for Ephesus. "Pericles' Funeral Oration" (Ancient Greek: Περικλέους Επιτάφιος) is a famous speech from Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. 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