I hope you learn quickly and easily from these problems. All these components operate with some loss and generate entropy -- this is the entropy that the designers try to minimize. Chapter 7 Solved Examples Answer Sheet 7 V1. Example based on Clausius’s statement 1) Refrigerator using electricity to change the direction of heat flow a.) Related examples Derivation of the Adiabatic Process formula. ��W�66�;�L�t�rb�u"�@�� �jG-�*y��fw��{�"1R'Ȟ��#2'-L���^�H+p����|�3x chapter 01: thermodynamic properties and state of pure substances. This is an example of how heat energy in a thermodynamic process can be converted into mechanical energy, and it is the core principle behind the operation of many engines. Ch 1 - Introduction: Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics, Lesson A - Applications of Thermodynamics, 1A-1 - Kinetic and Potential Energy of an Airplane in Flight, 1A-2 - Conversion of Kinetic Energy into Spring Potential Energy, Lesson B - Dimensions and Systems of Units, 1B-1 - Mass, Weight and Gravitational Acceleration, 1B-3 - Units and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1B-4 - Force Required to Accelerate a Rocket, 1B-5 - Relationships between Different Types of Pressures, 1B-6 - Force Required to Lift an Underwater Gate, 1B-7 - Mass, Weight and Gravitational Acceleration: Keebos and Tweeks, 1B-8 - Dimensionless Groups and Equations, Lesson C - Systems, States and Properties, 1C-1 - Identifying Open and Closed Sysytems, 1C-2 - Identifying Intensive and Extensive Properties, 1C-3 - Intensive Properties and the State of a System, Lesson D - Processes, Cycles & Equilibrium, 1D-2 - Thermodynamic Cycles in Normal Life, 1D-4 - Identifying a Quasi-Equilibrium Process, Lesson E - Temperature, Pressure & Volume, 1E-1 - Pressure Measurement Using a Multi-Fluid Manometer, 1E-2 - Pressure Gage and Manometer Readings, 1E-3 - Pressure in a Tank Using a Complex Manometer, 1E-6 - Temperature Change & Unit Conversions, Lesson A - Introduction to Pure Substances, Lesson B - P-V-T : Phases and Phase Diagrams, 2B-1 - Condensing Water Vapor by Increasing the Pressure, 2B-2 - Quality of a Two-Phase Ammonia Mixture in a Rigid Tank, 2C-1 - Specific Volume of Saturated Mixtures, 2C-2 - State of a System at a Given Temperature and Pressure, 2C-3 - Water Boils at a Higher Temperature in a Covered Pot, 2D-2 - Dew Point Calculations for Ammonia, 2D-3 - Volume Occupied by 25 kg of R-134a at Various Temperatures, 2D-4 - Determine Properties Using Thermodynamic Tables, 2D-5 - Relative and Absolute Humidity of Air, 2D-6 - Humidity and Partial Pressure in a Humid Ideal Gas, 2D-8 - Determining System Properties Using Thermodynamic Tables, 2D-9 - Relative Humidity, Partial Pressure and Mole and Mass Fractions, Lesson E - Ideal Gas and Graphical Equations of State. Assuming the process (a-r) is known, the compression work τ is given by (2.3.6) which is written here: hr- ha+ ΔK = τ + Q 0000000016 00000 n The clearance ratio is 0.05. THERMODYNAMICS - THEORY ... Compressors are devices which raise the pressure of the gas that passes through them. In addition, the work is done in or by the system. W��i�������řB�Ր����W^E���v�b���+����u�,���g ���q�4Id����N[R�Ib�J�Q'ed���bq�#]C��HN��. The text first covers dimensional analysis, and then proceeds to tackling thermodynamics. 8C-3 : Isentropic Efficiency of an Ideal Gas Compressor 7 pts; Consider the adiabatic air compressor shown below. Let assume the Rankine cycle, which is the one of most common thermodynamic cycles in thermal power plants. In this turbine the high-pressure stage receives gas (point 3 at the figure) from a heat exchanger: p … We will find that it is possible to under-stand the nature of a ramjet, the role of the turbine and the compressor and why increasing the compression ratio and developing turbines able to withstand high temperatures were important in the development of jet engines for com-mercial aircraft. ~��� m�J$�hPT�,/^�nQ��ꁟ��ء�����"z$tB�6f�%�����/���om��g��F� 0~�p���(}��#0ߌ�Sx��F�����KӇ�x���Su�36&b�X��E�F���+=�R��@�f,7C4H�S���9�����_�o0��YPӉ�I�')M]W"�~g���������r^�lH��A��p�4�Ŧx��lWq�,����Y�(V����*�4(�O���A�N��(2q��s{([�ˍdȎ�L( �B|.��Ų���I�l���"pA�� ����R��ڼ-�[&�4�)/ Ѳ�;�C܃���uҾ���3��BԒ�8����p�yd ��N�}3 ���d��,�,y������"�C�ou��'���Eԯ�I�:�t���c����-P��Y�a����ur%daQvKL�]p�H~43S�6�q�MCKR�=�;VX�%��a�{�C�?~g��?��ϝ���l�#�rn���f5�J=�(�e��l �ԧ���R�Wޔ�_�E��� �����HhLi�lk�� l���t��~�i�Ca��� ��wE� �Xaͩ��o�ڰ½�ºne�"=��]�:}�J.8��_]��:��]v�*���č��(|�.�yߩ��66� endstream endobj 93 0 obj<�M���} z�3�Ww�Dѹ)/P -3388/U(�'O~\nX�ݼ��Ȁa* )/V 2>> endobj 94 0 obj<> endobj 96 0 obj<> endobj 97 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 98 0 obj<> endobj 99 0 obj<> endobj 100 0 obj<>stream Example: Boiling soup in an open saucepan on a stove, the energy and matter are being transferred to the surroundings through steam, this is an example of an open system. The FAD is 13 dm3/s. Thermodynamics Example Problems Ch 1 - Introduction: Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics ... 7E-5 - Power Input for an Internally Reversible, Polytropic Compressor; Ch 8 - Thermodynamics of Flow Processes: Back to Top of this Page: Lesson A - Entropy Balances on Closed Systems . In pumps, the working fluid is a liquid instead of a gas. Please sign in or register … Example of Rankine Cycle – Problem with Solution. xref 0000062816 00000 n 0000002090 00000 n Adiabatic- Reversible and Irreversible Process. We will also understand how this develop- In many courses, the instructor posts copies of pages from the solution manual. startxref branch of science which deals with the study of heat and temperature and their relation to other forms of energy trailer There are four types of process in a thermodynamic system, which are shown via an image below: (image will be uploaded soon) 0000008609 00000 n The outlet temperature from a real, adiabatic compressor that accomplishes the same compression is 520K. 0000005939 00000 n w���|����Q+*�����Z�A ��.���?_;>y�2��s����S���ՇoJFN Figure 1 depicts a typical, single-stage vapor-compression system. University. The minimum and maximum temperatures are 300 and 1200 0000073781 00000 n • Define a refrigerator and heat pump. Work is supplied to these devices through a rotating shaft from an external source. The title provides detailed solution for the unanswered problems from the main textbook. Worked Examples in Turbomachinery (Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics) is a publication designed to supplement the materials in Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery, Second Edition. Chapter 2: PURE SUBSTANCE: Fixed chemical composition, throughout H 2 O, N 2, CO 2, Air (even a mixture of ice and water is pure). COMPRESSED LIQUID: NOT about to vaporize (Sub-cooed liquid) e.g., water at 20 o C and 1 atmosphere. Ն�J�� endstream endobj 101 0 obj<> endobj 102 0 obj[/ICCBased 109 0 R] endobj 103 0 obj<> endobj 104 0 obj<> endobj 105 0 obj<> endobj 106 0 obj<>stream Hence, this project can be used as part of the evaluation. It needs exter­nal energy input in the form of work. • Discuss the merits of different refrigerants. Examples of open thermodynamic systems include: -Water boiling in a pot without a lid (heat and steam, which is matter, escape into the air) -Turbines -Compressors -Heat exchangers -The human body 0000003078 00000 n the air temperature is. 0000002492 00000 n 95 0 obj<>stream ��dκ2�I�re6�Z��$�� Some textbooks do not have enough example problems to help students learn how to solve problems. j g. Academic year. EXAMPLE 1. Maxwell’s equation. APPLICATION GF BASIC THERMODYNAMICS TO COMPRESSOR CYCLE ANALYSIS Richard G. Kent P.E. Often the solution manual does little more than show the quickest way to obtain the answer and says nothing about. The piston moves up and down, that means expansion and compression takes place over here. THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 5 HEAT PUMPS AND REFRIGERATION On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following. But during this process, the heat flow does not occur from the walls (i.e ∆Q = 0). 6C-1 - Is This a Perpetual Motion Machine ? Thermodynamic work ​ is the amount of work a system does on the environment, for example, by the heat-induced expansion of a gas pushing a piston outwards. Coverage • Introduction • Indicated Work, Mechanical Efficiency • Condition for Minimum Work • Isothermal Efficiency • Compressors with Clearance • Volumetric Efficiency, Free Air Delivery • Multistage Compression • Ideal Intermediate Pressure. 0000073269 00000 n is 0000000791 00000 n 0000005118 00000 n D��L�"m��+S����b�i0|x¦��e�lO{�a�J�6�D� ?��{9o���r�̔;Y7j^KEgO�ix�oX|Ƙo�KՕf!���Q|�� 7����}T�9bxo7�R���z!�5�B�Z�#U9�F�MQ��������J�p�B��:(���If0Oy� ����Sf:Ľ�ZlܫJ���~�@����%�@�(]��\��Fa����b�Q�|����&������Y��91->Z8�Q�W�i�Lq ��ZⅣ�yr��I�bx�r (Reg. 92 0 obj<> endobj Classification of Compressors 3. 0000073447 00000 n An air compressor, Turbine. A secondary objective is to give an example of the extensiveness in the use of HYSYS DynamicsTM as a process simulation tool. Meaning of Compressor: Compressor is a device which compresses air/gases or vapours from low pressure to high pressure. For example in a real jet engine we have a non-ideal compressor, a non-ideal combustor and also a non-ideal turbine. It is the same for all functions referred to the "r" thermodynamic state, including the compression work. 6C-2 - Is This a Perpetual Motion Machine ? 0000027731 00000 n Adiabatic expansion and compression. 0000002687 00000 n Thus these engines are the example of second law of thermodynamics. 2E-4 - Equilibrium Pressure When Two Gases Are Mixed, 2F-1 - An Application of Equations of State, 2F-2 - An Application of Equations of State, 2F-3 - Determination of Pressure Inside a Tank Containing Ammonia, 3A-1 - Enthalpy and Internal Energy for Ideal Gases, Lesson B - Thermo Properties: NIST WebBook, 3B-1 - ΔU and ΔH for Isothermal Expansion of Superheated Water Vapor, 3B-2 - Internal Energy of Superheated Ammonia Vapor, 3C-1 - Enthalpy Change of Ammonia Using the IG Heat Capacity, 3C-2 - Application of the Gibbs Phase Rule to the Triple Point, 3C-3 - Liquid Heat Capacities and Specific Heats, 3C-4 - Enthalpy Change of N2 Using the IG Heat Capacity, 3D-1 - Calculating and Using the Heat Capacities of Ideal Gas Mixtures, 3D-2 - Heating Liquid Methanol in a Piston-and-Cylinder Device, 3E-1 - Hypothetical Process Paths and the Latent Heat of Vaporization, 3E-2 - Determination of the Vapor Pressure of Ammonia, 3E-3 - Hypothetical Process Paths and the Latent Heat of Vaporization, Ch 4 - The First Law of Thermodynamics: Closed Systems, 4A-1 - Work for a Cycle Carried Out in a Closed System, 4A-2 - Quasi-Equilibrium Expansion of a Gas, 4A-3 - Quasi-Equilibrium Compression of R-134a, 4A-4 - Expansion of a Gas in a Cylinder Against a Spring, 4A-5 - Quasi-Equilibrium Expansion of a Gas, 4B-1 - Radiation Heating and Convective Cooling of a Flat Plate, 4B-2 - Heat Transfer Through the Wall of a House, 4B-3 - Surface Temperature of a Spacecraft, 4C-1 - Application of the 1st Law to a Cannonball Falling Into Water, 4C-2 - Equilibration of a Tank and a Piston-and-Cylinder Device, 4C-4 - Muzzle Velocity of a Pellet Fired From an Air Gun, Lesson E - Isobaric and Isochoric Processes, 4E-1 - Isobaric Expansion of Steam in a Closed System, 4F-1 - Heat and Work for a Cycle Carried Out in a Closed System, 4F-3 - Coefficient of Performance of a Refrigeration Cycle, 4F-4 - Heat and Work for a Cycle Executed in a Closed System Containing Ammonia, Ch 5 - The First Law of Thermodynamics: Open Systems, 5B-2 - Heat Transfer Required to Keep the Energy in a Flow System Constant, 5C-1 - Cross-Sectional Area Requirement for an Adiabatic Nozzle, 5C-3 - Shaft Work Requirement for an Air Compressor, 5C-4 - Expansion of Steam Through a Throttling Valve, 5C-7 - Heat Losses From a Steam Compressor, 5C-9 - Outlet Temperature From a Steam Diffuser, 5C-10 - Thermal Equilibration of a Copper Block with an Iron Block, 5E-1 - Charging an Evacuated Vessel From a Steam Line, 5E-3 - Expansion of an Ideal Gas to Fill an Evacuated Chamber, 5E-4 - Discharging a Tank Containing Water and Steam, Lesson A - Introduction to the 2nd Law of Thermo, Lesson B - Heat Engines & Thermal Reservoirs, 6B-2 - Coefficient of Performance of a Heat Pump and a Refrigerator. 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